Cash transfers literature review, an earned...

The possible reasons for mixed results include: What is the evidence of the impact of cash transfers on a range of individual- or household- level outcomes, including intended and unintended outcomes? Since unemployed individuals are ineligible for benefits, an NIT is thought to be better than a Basic Income as it still incentivizes households to work.

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Moreover, those experiments did not measure long-term, general equilibrium effects. CCT programmes that support education and health-sector goals are at present an established feature of social security in many Latin American middle-income countries.

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On the micro level, you can scrutinize what happens to individuals and households that receive a transfer, e. You may also be interested in Disability in Mongolia is still understood and approached through a predominantly medical — rather than social — lens. A study by Goodman-Bacon and McGranahan found that inthe recipients concentrated most of their household spending in vehicle purchases and transportation spending in response to their EITC payments.

Cash and Income Studies: A Literature Review of Theory and Evidence

One possible explanation is that general equilibrium effects will offset the tendency for cash transfers to decrease labor supply. Following the success of the DFID literature review, this research reviews a more comprehensive and updated literature, focusing on a wide range of impact areas and offering the first systematic analysis of the mediating role of Cash Cash transfers literature review design and implementation factors.

While past NIT experiments have led to a reduction in labor supply, the effects were not as large as often speculated, and time saved from work was spent on childcare and looking for work. Universal Basic Income Universal basic income is one of several terms used to describe a system of regular and unconditional direct cash payments for all individuals in a given country or region.

Employment Empowerment It pays particular attention to the links between variations in cash transfer design and implementation details e.

  • An evaluation of a Brazilian CCT programme showed no effect on height-for-age measures and even a negative impact on weight-for-age for children under 7 years old.

The interventions and reported outcomes in the included studies were too diverse to combine the results in a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were searched using the combination of key words either based on Medical Subject Headings MeSH terms or free text terms related to conditional cash transfers, child health and equality of opportunity.

Only one paper, on the conditional cash transfer program in Mexico, covers these areas with nuance.

e-Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions (eLENA)

Read the research. More detailed description of the search terms is available in Additional file 1. The welfare gains generated by targeted programs offset the losses in horizontal equity resulting from a portion of low income families failing to receive support. As CCT programmes begin to expand into low-income settings, supply-side constraints — including weaknesses in governance, the banking system and information management necessary for maintaining beneficiary data bases — will influence the programmes' effectiveness 3.

The papers focused exclusively on CCTs omitting in-kind or non-conditional transfers.

Literature review on impact of cash transfers on nutritional outcomes | ENN

They argue that replacing existing anti-poverty programs with a UBI is likely to have negative impacts. However, for families with two or fewer children, the maximum credit distributed to them has remained the same in inflation-adjusted terms since The review represents an important contribution to the literature and augments our understanding of social protection programmes, even as it provides an interesting example of the limitations encountered when rigorous scientific selection criteria screen-out the large body of evidence on complex interventions.

Impact on anthropometric or nutritional outcomes Six papers of moderate quality reported outcomes on actr russian essay contest winners 2019 measures and nutritional status from four different CCT programmes. A study from Colombia showed mixed results regarding the impact of CCTs on the nutritional status of children: In fact, much more operational evidence is needed to support the continued expansion of conditional cash transfer programmes worldwide.

They demonstrate that replacing the Public Distribution System which provides low income families with subsidies for wheat, sugar, and kerosene with a UBI was found to increase coverage of low income households, but at the expense of leakage to some higher income households.

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Third, it usually constitutes a long-term stream of transfers to support the living needs of its recipients over a sizeable duration. Another study reported increases in the use of health-care services by We present here a list of papers and articles which touch on the various effects of and considerations behind designing and implementing a universal basic income.

They find that universal and permanent cash transfers do not aliens ate my homework 2019 cast decrease aggregate employment.

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Complementary interventions Taking into account the food intake and natural disease cycle, there is a consensus that CTs need to be complemented with other nutrition-specific and -sensitive interventions to maximise effectiveness Bailey and HedlundBlack et al. They also find that service sector workers increased their hours of work.

Impact on health outcomes Three studies of moderate quality were available for this outcome. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a full-article reading was conducted in order to identify eligible articles.

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The interventions listed here include basic income and proxies—earned income tax credits, negative income tax credits, conditional cash transfers, and unconditional cash transfers. The key stages included the following: Annotated bibliography This annotated bibliography is a key resource for policy analysts and practitioners working on social protection and cash transfers.

Given these identified gaps in knowledge and evidence around CTs and nutritional outcomes, the REFANI research is geared to address some of these gaps.

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Economically, a UBI would produce a more equal income distribution by balancing labor market distortions resulting from EITC incentives to find work. On the other hand, some economists think that a NIT will reduce labor supply, since the magnitude of the benefit distributed varies negatively with the income level of the household.

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Relevant studies were searched using the combination of key words either based on MeSH terms or free text terms related to conditional cash transfer, child health and equality of opportunity. On the meso level, you can explore how groups of households or villages, community organizations, and community institutions change in response to a saturated transfer effect.

Phenomenal World | Cash and Income Studies: A Literature Review of Theory and Evidence

However, there remains a large gap regarding the measurement of CT cost-effectiveness generally, and specifically in addressing nutritional outcomes Hoddinott et al. Finally, they assert that a NIT could be made more popular by appealing to moral values rather than focusing on the technical policy details.

How do they use the money, and how does it change their lives?

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The flow of studies through the selection process is detailed in Fig. Studies have been published between January of and June of in English, Portuguese and Spanish, with quantitative or mixed methods. References 1. Merchant of venice essay themes This review was commissioned to respond to strong demand from DFID country offices, policy leadership and external partners, including national governments, other donors, multilaterals, civil society organisations, and policy and research institutions.

The possible reasons for mixed results include: With versions of the two rights-based policies in India as a case study, he argues that cost, targeting, corruption, and context variation across settings are central restrictions on unequivocal support of either policy in developing countries.