Physical education literature review. Literature review on motor skill and physical activity in preschool children in New Zealand

Visual task switching data among 69 overweight and inactive children did not show differences between cognitive performance after treadmill walking and sitting Tomporowski et al. References Chomitz, V. Although a consensus on the relationship of physical activity to academic achievement has not been reached, the vast majority of available evidence suggests the relationship is either positive or neutral. In order to fully immerse ourselves into this research topic we found studies and research articles from the ESCO database.

More recently, reviews have attempted to describe the effects of an acute or single bout of physical activity, as a behavior, on academic performance.

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In addition, the authors found physical activity to be related to better accuracy across conditions in older adults, while no such relationship was observed for younger adults. This approach involves inferring changes in neuronal activity from alteration in blood flow or metabolic activity in the brain.

Therefore the essay demonetisation findings suggest that higher-fit children allocate greater attentional resources and have faster cognitive processing speed relative to lower-fit children Physical education literature review et al. As noted above, Castelli and colleagues observed poorer essay victory day on the mathematics and reading critical thinking and caring in nursing students of the Illinois Standardized Achievement Test in 3rd- and 5th-grade students as a function of higher BMI, and Donnelly and colleagues used a cluster randomized trial to demonstrate that physical activity in the classroom decreased BMI and improved academic achievement among pre-adolescent children.

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Chaddock and colleagues ab showed a relationship among aerobic fitness, brain volume, and aspects of cognition and memory. Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement?

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Thus cognitive functions subserved by these brain regions such as those involved in cognitive control and aspects of memory are expected to decay more dramatically than other aspects of cognition. Researchers found that students with 9 health assets or more were 2. He discovered that only five guys burgers and fries business plan studies had included socioeconomic status as a variable, despite its known relationship to education Sirin, Finally, although a number of studies have described the relationship of physical activity, fitness, and adiposity to standardized measures of academic performance, few attempts have been made to observe the relationship within the context of the educational environment.

For example, one must shift attention from the teacher who is teaching a lesson to one's notes to write down information for later study. To physical education literature review the effects of engagement in physical activity during recess on classroom behavior, Barros and colleagues examined data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study on 10, 8- to 9-year-old children.

In a meta-analysis, Sibley and Etnier found a positive relationship between physical activity and cognition in school-age youth agedsuggesting that physical activity, as well as physical fitness, may be related to cognitive outcomes during development.

They conducted their research by using data from elementary schools that submitted the school health profile SHP.

Literature Review

Further, it is unclear whether policies required students to have higher GPAs to be eligible for participation. Functional MRI fMRI measures, which make it possible to image activity in the brain while an individual is performing a cognitive task, have revealed that aerobic training induces changes in patterns of functional activation.

Impact of a school-based program. They found a significant positive relationship between fitness and Math and English academic achievement.

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  • We hypothesize that the more PE minutes high school students get the higher their scores will be on standardized test in math and reading.
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Adiposity and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome as It Relates to Cognitive Health A related and emerging literature that has recently been popularized investigates the relationship of adiposity to cognitive and brain health and academic performance. It is important to note that cognitive tasks completed before, during, and after physical activity show varying effects, but the effects were always positive compared with sedentary behavior.

Longitudinal studies such as those conducted in Sweden and Finland also suggest that physical education experiences may be related to adult engagement in physical activity Glenmark, ; Telama et al.

These reviews sample essay requesting financial aid focused on brain health in 1905 russian revolution essay adults Colcombe and Kramer,as well as the effects of acute physical activity on cognition in adults Tomporowski, Working memory refers to the ability to represent information mentally, manipulate stored information, and act on the information Davidson et al.

SUMMARY From an authentic and practical physical education literature review a mechanistic perspective, physically active and aerobically fit children consistently outperform their inactive and unfit peers academically on both a short- and a long-term basis. Furthermore, it cover letter samples hr manager potentially close the inequalities experienced by our urban youth in both health and academic achievement Ickovics et al.

Corroborating five guys burgers and fries business plan for a negative relationship between adiposity and academic performance may be found in smaller but more tightly controlled studies.

School outcomes related to the health environment and changes in mathematics achievement. Changes in academic achievement, fitness, and blood screening were considered secondary outcomes.

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Van, D. The next decade should provide a great deal of information on this relationship.

Literature Review- Physical Education and Academic Achievement in Urban Areas

Core cognitive processes that make up cognitive control or executive control include inhibition, working memory, and cognitive flexibility Diamond,processes mediated by networks that involve the prefrontal cortex. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Cotman et al. Children who participate in vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity benefit the most. In seminal research conducted ielts essay band 7-8 Gabbard and Bartonsix different conditions of physical activity no activity; 20, 30, 40, and 50 minutes; and posttest no activity were completed by 2nd graders during physical education.

Given that the evidence base in this area has grown exponentially in the past 10 years through correlational studies and that causal evidence has accumulated through sample essay requesting financial aid and nonhuman animal studies, the next step will be to increase the amount of causal evidence available on school-age children.

Effects of Regular Engagement in Physical Activity and Physical Fitness on Brain Function Other research has attempted to characterize fitness-related differences in brain function using fMRI and event-related powerpoint essay writing potentials ERPswhich are neuroelectric indices of functional brain activation in the electro-encephalographic time series.

In another study, 43 4th-grade students were randomly assigned to 1 or no days of recess to examine the effects on classroom behavior Jarrett et al.

Literature review on motor skill and physical activity in preschool children in New Zealand

Results indicate that children who had at least 15 minutes of recess were more likely to exhibit appropriate behavior in the classroom Barros business plan for bus transport al. For instance, socioeconomic status has a unique relationship with physical activity Estabrooks et al.

The findings of these studies need to be interpreted with caution as many of their designs failed to account for the level of participation by individuals in the sport e.

Once we did this we were able to better group our findings into subcategories, which later on became our factors for measuring the relationship between physical education and academic achievement. Several studies Hillman et al. In a second investigation Chaddock et al.

PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: RELATION TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE

The Evidence Base on the Relationship of Physical Activity to Rubrics case study analysis Health and Cognition in Older Adults Despite the current focus on the relationship of physical activity to cognitive development, the evidence base is larger on the association of physical activity with brain health and cognition during aging.

Muscle strength and flexibility showed no relationship, while an inverse association of BMI with test performance was observed, such that higher BMI was associated with lower test performance.

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Findings suggest that physical education was associated with physical activity in later life for females but not males Trudeau et al. A second and more recent meta-analysis Smith et al. Time spent engaged in physical activity is related not only to a healthier body but also to enriched cognitive development and lifelong brain health.

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Tomporowski, Since there is constantly more pressure put on students for testing, there is less time for children to be physical active. Studies have found that single bouts of physical activity result in improved attention Hillman et al. This chapter reviews the findings of recent research regarding the contribution of engagement in physical activity and the attainment of a health-enhancing level of physical fitness to cognitive and brain health in children.

Early research in South Australia focused on quantifying the benefits of physical activity and physical education during the school day; the benefits noted included increased physical fitness, decreased body fat, and reduced risk for cardiovascular disease Dwyer et al. Consistent engagement in recess can help students refine social skills, learn social mediation skills surrounding fair play, obtain additional minutes of vigorous- or moderate-intensity physical activity that contribute toward the recommend 60 minutes or more per day, and physical education literature review an opportunity to express their imagination through free play Pellegrini and Bohn, ; see also Chapter 6.

In addition to a general shifting of time in school away from physical education to allow for more time on academic subjects, some children are withheld from physical education classes or recess to participate in remedial or enriched learning experiences designed to increase academic performance Pellegrini and Bohn, ; see Chapter 5.

The composite score was determined by how well the school was implementing the policy. The fMRI data collected during an antisaccade task, which requires inhibitory control, indicated increased bilateral activation of the prefrontal cortex and decreased bilateral activation of the posterior parietal cortex following the physical activity intervention relative to the control group.

Additionally, further consideration of age is warranted. Based on their earlier findings on changes in cognitive control induced by aerobic training, Colcombe and Kramer conducted a meta-analysis to examine the relationship between aerobic training and cognition in older adults aged using data from 18 randomized controlled exercise interventions.

We hypothesize that the more PE minutes high school does age matter in relationship argumentative essay get the higher their scores will be on standardized test in math and reading.

They observed better performance following the physical activity intervention during task conditions that required the upregulation of working memory relative to the task condition requiring lesser amounts of working memory. These changes in neural activation were related to significant improvements in performance on the cognitive control task of attention and inhibition.

Although these data are correlational, they provide a basis for further study using other neuroimaging tools e.

The applications of such empirical findings within the school setting remain unclear. The academically oriented physical activities were intended to be of vigorous or moderate intensity 3—6 metabolic equivalents [METs] and to last approximately 10 minutes and were specifically designed to supplement content in mathematics, language arts, geography, history, spelling, science, and health.

Health and Physical Education: Writing Literature Reviews

Reviews focusing on research conducted in children Sibley and Etnier, have examined the relationship among physical activity, participation in sports, and academic performance Trudeau and Shephard,; Singh et al. Attendance is another factor confirmed as having a significant impact on academic performance Stanca, ; Baxter et al.

Although a consensus on the relationship of physical activity to academic achievement has not been reached, the vast majority of available evidence suggests the relationship is either positive or neutral.

Aerobic fitness, then, may be important to academic performance, as there may be a dose-response relationship Van Dusen et al. Lastly, hippocampal volume was positively related to performance on the relational memory task but not the item memory task, and bilateral hippocampal volume was observed to mediate the relationship between fitness and relational memory Chaddock et al.