Action research literature review. Action Research: Literature Review Summary
For Tracy Thomas and Julie Keller technology was an opportunity for Girl Scouts to earn technology badges and to attract young people to the Louisville Free Public Library facilities If a girl's "learnings are enabled through imaginative, creative and aesthetic experience" then it is necessary to create computer projects that challenge the imagination and desire to create Hanor, Forest business plan different ways of knowing might include "tacit, ambiguous, problematic, experiential, and intuitive" means Hanor, According to Hanor, "Using an aesthetic framework to study girls' interactions with computers builds on research findings about girls' ways of knowing" Tech Club has from its inception lacked female participants. Central to this effort is adapting the program to better suit the interests of girls and marginalized students, especially students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
According to Bhargava, Kirova-Petrova, and McNair "girls in general view computers and technology as being beyond their capabilities and realm of understanding" Computers encourage leadership potential in all students.
In the case of Ben, collaborative computer work with his peers resulted in increased social status: Computers and the internet make it possible for students to access information on issues that matter to them and assist them in making informed decisions that affect their lives. Bhargava, Kirova-Petrova, and McNair find that academically, females do as well as males in technology classes but males spend more of their time after school playing with computers and ieee sample research paper pdf enrollment in computer science courses in college are higher Asperger's Syndrome: Teachers should aim to demonstrate computers are a way for students to gain new knowledge and that they can be used to accomplish tasks Bhargava et al.
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Silberman, in his article on children with Asperger's Syndrome notes that computers are an good interest for people with Asperger's Syndrome because that are "logical, consistent, and not prone to moods" The club was started at the principal's behest: The full review follows. In Kiley Hartshorn's paper, she writes about how internet research allowed her and the other girls in the technology club to choose topics and conduct research that mattered to them personally as eighth grade girls: While girls in particular are interested in the interpersonal relationships created and developed by technology and computer use, all students benefit from increased collaboration and communication possibilities.
Tech, Retrieved January 11,from http: The prevalence of technology in society bodes well for children with autism. Choice, for girls, is more important as it helps inform the aesthetic qualities of their projects: Computers are not used across the curriculum but rather in ways that only interest boys Bhargava et al.
The opportunity to work with computers may be limited for girls because of prejudices of society that are communicated in subtle and blatant ways by the actions of parents, adults, and the mass media suggesting to girls that computers are not for them Bhargava et al. Building customer relationship essay, L.
Special Education Perspectives, 8, Retrieved January 11,from http: For Tracy Thomas and Julie Keller technology was an opportunity for Girl Scouts to earn technology badges and to attract young people to the Louisville Free Public Library facilities This strategy has also worked particularly well for me in Tech Club with a student with Asperger's Syndrome who knows the Mac and PC operating system and applications with uncanny thoroughness.
Computers and technology offer "opportunities for connections of unparalleled proportions" Hanor, Girls place emphasis on narrative and voice in their own work. Aesthetics are connected to interpersonal relationships as well: When Hanor examines girls' interactions with computers, she relies on "an understanding and interpretation of multiple forms of knowledge citizens charter thesis are constructed, embedded, and created in interaction with others" Hanor, Therefore, it is appropriate and beneficial to include students such as this who are interested in a setting like Tech Club because they stand to be empowered.
The collaborative use of computers by children with autism and their peers, as well as a means of engaging students with Asperger's Syndrome with a subject in which they are interested, offers interesting possibilities for empowering these marginalized students. The computer is a useful tool for both genders, and is used to increase social connections and boost self-esteem.
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Teachers compound the issue, according to Bhargava, et al. Girls take rwth aachen university phd thesis of technology.
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In similar situations, Hanor found that communication became the primary interest in a computer project, with the computers taking a secondary interest among the females.
Tech Club has from its inception lacked female participants. Activities in the Tech Club have always had a heavy emphasis on the technology side of the activities and the projects emphasize this focus: For girls, "relevant application appears to be more important" when using computers as girls are more interested in the collaborative, partner-based process Bhargava et al.
Females seek aesthetic experiences in their sample cover letter statements use, which is also a means of establishing and cultivating relationships.
However, dividing students by gender might be unnecessary if one's actions are deliberate. Additionally, field trips to diverse settings where females model "competent computer use" are beneficial for all students as examples of leadership and empowerment Bhargava et al. Development of social skills amongst adults with Asperger's Syndrome using virtual environments: Computer programs can be suited towards cooperative work because they can be configured to accept input from two different joysticks, for example Goldsmith, LeBlanc, There is also a first draft and a challenges entrepreneurs face in preparing a business plan draft available.
The stories, drawings, and symbols that girls create when using computers are aesthetic forms that reveal their knowledge Hanor, Furthermore, computer literacy and fluency increase a student's leadership potential because of ieee sample research paper pdf or his experience and capabilities.
Activities must be constructed with plenty of chances for students to interact and to use the computer as a go-between device to enhance collaboration. Central to this effort is adapting the program to better suit the interests of girls and marginalized students, especially students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.
How could these interests and capabilities be leveraged in a Tech Club? While a group of boys worked to enhance and expand their skills three years ago in our first efforts at a stop-motion film, a girl wrote the dialogue that brought cohesive narrative to the piece.
In fact, the computer itself might seem irrelevant for the girl participating in a technology-rich group activity that increases opportunities to develop interpersonal relations.
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Girls value computer use that creates and reinforces interpersonal relationships. Narrative, according to Hanor, is another aesthetic influence that is important to girls Teachers can encourage leadership in their students' computer use by demonstrating competence to inspire competence Bhargava et al, Group projects involving computers should emphasize the participatory aspect of the project over the technology itself in order to best serve females.
In Kiley Hartshorn's case, her technology skills, particularly research skills, improved because of her exposure to technology and her work in a technology class By scaffolding students as they learn to use computers and software until they become more competent, adults can increase students' computer literacy and help establish them as leaders in technology use Bhargava et al.
What modifications might be made to the way Tech Club operates and the kinds of activities that we take part in to better suit girls?
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Therefore, the technology itself might not be of interest to girls, but what they are able to produce with the technology is the focus of their interests. Another girl enjoyed working on the sets for the same film, painstakingly building them from construction paper and glue, but she was not as engaged by the stop-motion film making or editing the film on the computer.
The relevancy of the topics makes the information more personal to these students. Understanding Gender Differences in the Use of Technology Female use technology differently than do males, and the difference in use must be considered. Retrieved January 11,from Wired Web site: References Bhargava, A. The knowledge that they gain is applicable to their lives and effects them positively.
The collaborative computer culture also led to increased self-esteem for Ben, whose parents described Ben as proud for being chosen for argumentative essay presentation computer activity with his peers Lewis et al. Ben's work on the computer with his classmates resulted in better interactions with his peers and an increased ability for Ben to give instructions so he could better have his needs met.
Furthermore, boys dominate the use of computers while girls tend to be nonassertive in their right to equitable computer time Bhargava et al, Projects that foster increased communication and collaboration how do you quote book titles in an essay engage females because such projects include an interpersonal relationship component.
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Using computers to present information to students on the Autism Spectrum potentially presents the information in a way "that reduces potentially confusing and axitexty-inducing, multi-source inputs that characterize 'real-worls' interactions Parsons et al. Increasing participation by marginalized students requires an understanding of the benefits technology might have in empowering these students and giving them voice.